人人参与,百家争鸣,审核发布,互动争先

三十而立

论语

子曰:“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。”

 

今译:孔子说:“我十五岁立志学习;三十岁立身处世站稳了脚跟;四十岁时明白各种事理而不迷惑;五十岁时懂得天命;六十岁时对别人的话能辨别是非曲直;七十岁时能随心所欲而不越出规矩。”

 

【翻译要点评析】

1.“吾十有五而志于学”,“有”是连词,加在整数和零数之间。可不译出,“十有五”意即十五岁。“而”:此段中的六个“而”都是连词,表示时间at。“志”:立志。“于”:是介词,相当于“在……方面”。“志于学”set my mind on learning; made up my mind to study。

 

2. “三十而立”,对于“立”,有两种理解,王福林认为孔子的本意是“立于礼”,即“一切按礼办事”故译成acted on the proprieties。而其他中外译者都理解为“在社会上立身出世站稳了脚跟”,故有译文stood firm; planted my feet firm upon the ground; have been well established等。在当代中国人心目中对“而立之年”的理解都与后者相同。

 

3. “四十而不惑”,“不惑”:明白各种事理而不迷惑was no longer perplexed; have understood many things and have no longer been confused; had no doubts。王福林先生则从孔子的“仁礼观”出发,认为“不惑”就是“不惑于仁”,亦即能辨明仁与不仁could make clear distinction between benevolence (仁慈,善行) and non-benevolence (不仁)。

 

4. “五十而知天命”,王福林认为“天命”是客观必然性,是指道德修养中的一种很高的境界,把“知天命”译为I came to know the existence of the heavenly principles。赖波认为,“知天命”就是“知道上天赋予自己的使命I have known my heaven-sent duty。其他的译者则把“天命”译作the decree of Heaven; the will of Heaven等。

 

5. “六十而耳顺”,“耳顺”:对别人的话能辨别是非曲直have been able to distinguish right and wrong on other people’s words。王福林则译为the heavenly principles were not offensive to my ears。

 

6. “七十而从心所欲”,“从”:跟从,依从。“所欲”:是“所字短语”,意即“想要的事物”。“从心所欲”意即“心里怎么想就怎么做could do whatever I wished; could follow what my heart desired。

 

7. “不逾矩”,“逾”:逾越go beyond; overstep。“矩”:规矩norms; rules; what was right。王福林解释为“天命的范围”the heavenly principles。美国诗人庞德则把“矩”译成T-square(丁字尺),很形象,但不符合实际,因为孔子时代还没有发明丁字尺。

 

【六种不同的译文】

 

1. 理译:The Master said: “At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning. At thirty, I stood firm. At forty, I had no doubts. At fifty, I know the decrees of Heaven. At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth. At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right.”

 

2. 威译:The Master said, At fifteen I set my heart upon learning. At thirty, I had planted my feet firm upon the ground. At forty, I no longer suffered from perplexities. At fifty, I knew what were the biddings of Heaven. At sixty, I heard them with docile ear. At seventy, I could follow the dictates of my own heart; for what I desired no longer overstepped the boundaries of right.

 

3. 王译:Confucius said: “At fifteen I set my mind on learning. At thirty I acted on the proprieties. At forty I could make a clear distinction between benevolence and non-benevolence. At fifty I came to know the existence of the heavenly principles. At sixty, the heavenly principles were not offensive to my ears. At seventy I could do whatever I wished to without going beyond the heavenly principles.”

 

4. 赖译:Confucius said: “Since the age of 15, I have devoted myself to learning; since 30, I have been well established; since 40, I have understood many things and have no longer been confused; since 50, I have known my heaven-sent duty; since 60, I have been able to distinguish right and wrong on other people’s words; and since 70, I have been able to do what I intend freely without breaking the rules.”

 

5. 潘译:The Master said, “At fifteen I set my heart on learning. At thirty I could stand firm. At forty I had no doubts. At fifty I knew the Decree of Heaven. At sixty I was already obedient (to this decree). At seventy I could follow the desire of my mind without overstepping the boundaries (of what is right).”

 

6. 丁译:Confucius said, “At fifteen I made up my mind to study; at thirty I was established; at forty I was no longer perplexed; at fifty I understood the will of Heaven; at sixty I listened to everything without feeling unhappy; at seventy I followed all my desires and none of them was against the norms.”

 

【六种译本对关键词译法之比较】

   译本
原文
理译
 威译
  王译
  赖译
  潘译
  丁译
“而立”
Stood firm
Plant  feet firm upon ground
Acted on  proprieties
Have been well established
Could stand firm
Was established
“不惑”
Had no doubts
No longer suffered from perplexities
Make a clear distinction between benevolence and non-benevolence
Understand many things and have no longer been confused
Had no doubts
Was no longer perplexed
“天命”
Decrees of Heaven
What were the bidding of Heaven
Existence of heavenly principles
My heaven-sent duty
The Decree of Heaven
The will of Heaven
“耳顺”
My ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth
Heard them with docile ear
Heavenly principles were not offensive to my ears
Be able to distinguish right and wrong
Was already obedient (to this decree)
Listened to everything without feeling unhappy
“不逾矩”
Without transgressing
What was right
No longer overstepped
Boundaries of right
Without going beyond the heavenly principles
Without breaking the rules
Without overstepping boundaries
None of them was against the norms
 
发布时间:2011-08-05 | 访问量:2421次 | 标签:yyw
18.210.28.227
网友评论
人人参与,百家争鸣,审核发布,互动争先